What Is Titanium?

What Is Titanium?


  • Titanium with an atomic number of 22 is found in the Periodic Table with the symbol ‘Ti’.
  • Titanium is a lustrous silver-coloured transition metal named after the Titans of Greek mythology.
  • Discovered in 1791 in Cornwall, Great Britain by William Gregor.
  • Titanium is less dense than steel but is equally strong.
  • Ranking ninth on the list of most abundant metals on earth.

The properties of titanium that make it ideal for a wide range of applications are its high strength to weight ratio, ductility, resistance to corrosion, and its compatibility with human tissue such that it can be used for medical implants. Titanium is one of the strongest metals due to its resistance to heat, water, and salt and lightweight, which are the main reasons it is used in common applications such as jewelry and essential applications like implants and the construction of aircraft and ships.

Titanium alloys retain the same properties as pure titanium but add other properties such as flexibility and malleability, which makes titanium alloys more useful than pure titanium.

What Is the Color of Titanium? 

Titanium has a silvery-gray or silvery-white color. However, titanium can achieve the full spectrum of color if anodized in specific ways. By controlling the voltage during the anodization process, different colors of titanium can be achieved.

What Is the Price of Titanium?

In comparison to other metals, titanium tends to be more expensive. A kilogram of stainless steel can cost anywhere from $1 up to $1.50. Aluminum can cost between $2 and $2.50 per kilogram. The same amount of titanium can cost between $35 and $50. The wide difference in costs is one of the reasons that manufacturers look for alternatives to using titanium.

What makes titanium more cost effective than other metals is its longevity and exceptional properties, which far exceed the characteristics of other metals. Its use may enhance the price of a final product but ensures the long life and excellent performance of a product.


What Are the Common Grades of Titanium?

There are several different grades and alloys of titanium. The list below describes some common grades of titanium in more detail:

1. Grade 11 

Grade 11, also known as CP Ti-0.15Pd, is commercially pure titanium, similar to Grade 1 and Grade 2. Grade 11 provides enhanced crevice corrosion resistance due to added palladium. It also has high ductility, impact toughness, and weldability. Grade 11 is commonly used in chemical processing and storage, ducts, pumps, and heat exchangers.

2. Grade 12 or Ti 0.3-Mo 0.8-Ni

Grade 12 titanium, also known as Ti 0.3 Mo 0.8 Ni, is a durable, corrosion-resistant, and thermally stable titanium alloy that is valued for its weldability and formability. Grade 12 titanium alloy contains up to 99% titanium, 0.6-0.9% nickel, 0.2-0.4% molybdenum, up to 0.3% iron, up to 0.25% oxygen, and other elements. Because of its durability and resistance to corrosion, Grade 12 is commonly used in marine components such as ships or offshore drilling platforms, chemical manufacturing, and in heat exchangers.

3. Grade 4 

Grade 4 titanium is the strongest commercially pure titanium. Grade 4 titanium’s strength rivals that of stainless and low-carbon steel, which makes the material a lighter-weight alternative. Because of its strength and corrosion resistance, Grade 4 is commonly used in aerospace, chemical processing, and marine components such as airframe structures and heat exchangers.

4. Grade 5 or Ti 6Al-4V 

Grade 5 is the most commonly used titanium alloy. It accounts for around half of all the titanium used in the world. It has exceptionally high strength, heat resistance, ability to be heat treated, formability, and corrosion resistance. Grade 5 is also known as Ti 6Al-4V due to the percentage of aluminum and vanadium in the alloy. Grade 5 titanium contains 88-90% titanium, 5.5-6.75% aluminum, 3.5-4.5% vanadium, and trace amounts of other elements including iron, oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. Because of its properties, Grade 5 titanium is highly sought after in the aerospace industry to fabricate engines and structural components. Additionally, Ti 6Al-4V is often used in automotive parts like springs and exhausts and medical applications like joint implants..

5. Grade 7 

Grade 7 is a titanium alloy that is nearly identical to Grade 2 titanium. The only difference between Grade 7 and Grade 2 is the addition of palladium in Grade 7 alloys. The composition of Grade 7 titanium is 99% titanium, 0.12-0.25% palladium, 0.3% iron, 0.25% oxygen, and other elements. Grade 7 has the highest corrosion resistance of all titanium alloys and exhibits excellent weldability and forming properties. Because of its excellent corrosion-resistant properties, Grade 7 titanium is often used in chemical manufacturing and desalination applications.

6. Grade 1 

Grade 1 is the softest and most ductile pure titanium grade. Therefore, Grade 1 titanium possesses the best formability out of the different types of titanium. Grade 1 titanium is composed of 99% titanium, 0.2% iron, 0.18% oxygen, and trace amounts of other elements such as nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen. It is often used in plating, piping, tubing, and other applications where formability and weldability are critical, such as in the aerospace, automotive, and power generation industries.

7. Grade 3 

Grade 3 is the least commonly used pure titanium grade. Grade 3 is stronger than Grade 1 and Grade 2 titanium, but also has slightly less ductility and formability. Grade 3 is commonly used in cryogenic vessels, condenser tubing, heat exchangers, and other chemical processing equipment.

8. Grade 6 or Ti 5Al-2.5Sn 

Grade 6 titanium is a titanium alloy containing approximately 5% aluminum, 2.5% tin, and 0.5% iron. The addition of aluminum and tin improves titanium’s creep resistance and temperature stability. Grade 6 is preferred for higher service temperatures around 900 °F where it is often used for casings and rings in turbine engines, structural members and frames in aircraft, and chemical processing parts.

9. Grade 2 

Grade 2 is another commercially pure titanium and is the most commonly used commercially pure grade. Like other commercially pure titanium grades, it contains 99% titanium but differs from other pure grades in that it contains 0.3% iron, 0.25% oxygen, and trace amounts of other elements. The larger oxygen percentage allows Grade 2 titanium to be stronger than Grade 1. Additionally, its ductility and weldability make Grade 2 a highly versatile alloy. Grade 2 titanium is often more affordable than other grades of titanium because it is produced in large volumes for widespread uses. Grade 2 titanium is often used in power generation and petroleum industries as a lining material due to its corrosion resistance.

10. Grade 23 or Ti 6AL-4V ELI

Grade 23 titanium, also known as Ti 6Al-4V ELI due to its chemical composition, has high tensile and yield strength, toughness, ductility, and weldability. It has a composition of 88-90% titanium, 5.5-6.5% aluminum, 3.5-4.5% vanadium, 0.25% iron, 0.13% oxygen, and other elements. Grade 23 is considered a more pure version of Grade 5 titanium and is often the best choice for dental and medical applications. Therefore, Grade 23 titanium is often used in bone and joint replacements, surgical staples, ligature clips, tooth implants, and more.

Which Grade of Titanium Is Best?

Grade 5 (Ti 6Al-4V) titanium is the most versatile grade of titanium due to its wide range of desirable properties. It has high strength and ductility and is also corrosion-resistant, thermally stable, and highly formable. Its properties enable Grade 5 titanium to be ideal across a broad scope of industries and applications: from automotive and aerospace parts to sporting goods and consumer products.


What Are the Key Features of Titanium?

The properties and features of titanium differ depending on the grade and the particular alloy. However, some general characteristics of titanium are shown in the list below:

  1. Corrosion Resistant: Titanium is highly resistant to corrosion from seawater, chlorine, and many other corrosive agents, making it useful in marine, and chemical processing applications.
  2. Lightweight: Titanium has a low density compared to many other metals. It is ideal for use in lightweight structures and components in the aerospace and automotive industries.
  3. High Strength: Titanium’s strength rivals that of steel. A titanium structure of equivalent strength, however, weighs approximately 45% less than the corresponding steel structure because of titanium’s lower density. Because of its high strength and high strength-to-weight ratio, titanium is often used in aerospace, automotive, medical, and marine applications.
  4. Biocompatible: Titanium is considered the most biocompatible metal due to its inertness, its resistance to corrosion by bodily fluids, its capability to integrate into bone (osseointegration), and its high cyclic fatigue limit. This makes titanium useful in bone, joint, and dental implants.
  5. Heat Resistant: Titanium has low thermal conductivity. This makes titanium ideal for high-heat applications in machining, spacecraft, jet engines, missiles, and automobiles.
  6. Nonmagnetic: Titanium is nonmagnetic, but becomes paramagnetic in the presence of a magnetic field. 
  7. Ductile: Titanium is a ductile metal whose ductility improves with increased temperatures. Additionally, alloying titanium with other ductile metals like aluminum significantly improves its ductility.
  8. Low Thermal Expansion: Titanium has a low coefficient of thermal expansion. At extreme temperatures, titanium will not expand or contract as much as other materials such as steel. Its low thermal expansion properties make titanium ideal for structural applications that experience high temperatures such as in aerospace and spacecraft or large buildings and skyscrapers in the event of a fire.
  9. Excellent Fatigue Resistance: Titanium has excellent fatigue resistance. This makes titanium ideal for aerospace applications where structural parts of aircraft such as landing gear, hydraulic systems, and exhaust ducts are subjected to cyclic loading.

What Are the Benefits of Titanium?

Some of the benefits of titanium are listed below:

  1. High Strength: Titanium has excellent strength and is one of the strongest metals on the periodic table. It has an exceedingly high strength-to-weight ratio, even more so than aluminum. Its strength and its low weight make titanium a popular option in many industries and applications.
  2. Corrosion Resistance: Titanium is naturally resistant to corrosion due to its readiness to react with oxygen. Titanium oxide forms on the surface of the part when it is exposed to air. This titanium oxide layer protects the rest of the material from corrosive substances and environments. Its corrosion resistance makes titanium ideal for use in construction and marine applications.
  3. Biocompatible: Titanium is nontoxic and biocompatible with both humans and animals. Hence, titanium is often used in the medical and dental industry, where it is used for implants and surgical and dental instruments.
  4. High Melting Point: Titanium has a melting point of around 3,034 °F. This makes titanium ideal for high-temperature applications such as jet engines, rockets, power plants, and foundries.
  5. Versatile Fabrication Methods: Though titanium is an exceptionally strong metal, it is soft and ductile. This enables titanium parts to be fabricated from a wide range of manufacturing processes including machining, forming, rolling, casting, and welding.

What Are the Applications of Titanium?

The properties of titanium make its use common across a wide range of industries and applications. Some applications of titanium are listed below:

1. Jewelry

Titanium is commonly used in jewelry to make piercings, wristwatches, necklaces, rings, and other items due to its durability, light weight, and corrosion resistance. Additionally, titanium is sometimes mixed with gold to make 24-karat gold alloys which are harder and more durable than pure gold alternatives. Because of its biocompatibility, Titanium is popular among people who have allergies to other metals often found in jewelry, such as nickel.

2. Medical 

Titanium is a highly critical metal in the medical industry due to its high strength, fatigue resistance, and biocompatibility. Titanium is often used in surgical and dental tools, implants, and joint replacements. Osseointegration, the ability of a bone and artificial implant to form a structural and functional connection, is possible with titanium. Titanium’s biocompatibility and non-toxicity enable better patient outcomes and durable and strong implants and prosthetics that can last up to 30 years.

3. Industrial 

Titanium is commonly used in a broad range of industrial environments due to its high strength and fatigue resistance, corrosion resistance, light weight, and durability. Uses of titanium in industrial settings include heat exchangers, tanks, reactors, valves, pipes, connecting rods, pumps, and more.

4. Aerospace

Titanium is a great choice for the manufacture of aerospace parts and vehicles and accounts for nearly 50% of the total weight of an aircraft. It is often used to manufacture critical parts such as landing gear, firewalls, and hydraulic systems. Titanium is valued in the aerospace industry because of its low density, high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and fatigue resistance.

5. Architectural 

Titanium is ideal for architectural products due to its light weight, high strength, corrosion resistance, and durability. While steel is still preferred to titanium when it comes to building frames, titanium is often used for glass frames, facades, roofs, interior wall surfaces, and ceilings due to its corrosion resistance and high strength-to-weight ratio.

6. Composites 

Titanium-based composites are recently developed materials that utilize titanium’s strength and weight characteristics to produce titanium fiber-reinforced or particulate (powder) reinforced composites. Titanium composites exhibit higher stiffness, wear resistance, and strength than conventional alloys. While titanium composites have only been developed since the start of the 21st century, they are beginning to be implemented in aerospace and automotive applications.

7. Automotive Industry 

Titanium is often used in the automotive industry to make engine parts, crankshafts, valve seats, connecting rods, exhaust systems, suspension systems, and automotive frames. Titanium is highly coveted in the automotive industry due to its low density, high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and heat resistance. Not only do these characteristics of titanium enable improved aerodynamics and performance, but its low density and high strength also lead to a more cost-effective manufacturing process since less material is used to satisfy particular applications.

8. Chemical Processing 

Titanium is often used in the chemical processing industry due to its corrosion resistance and chemical inertness. While the reactivity of titanium significantly increases at higher temperatures (>700 °F), titanium is generally unreactive and stable at lower temperatures. Titanium is often used in pipes, flanges, tubing, tanks, pumps, and heat exchangers.

What is Titanium Anodizing Process?

Anodizing titanium is a popular way to add bright color to titanium projects. In addition to adding color, anodized titanium also offers wear resistance to the part as well.  Colors that can be achieved this way fall into the Bronze, Purple, Blue, Light Blue, Gold, Rose, Magenta, Teal and Green ranges. 

While this range offers plenty of color variations, certain colors, like Red, are impossible to achieve through anodizing due to the limits of the anodizing process.

Below is a Anodized Titanium color chart along with Voltage used to produce the color.  The range here is from 0 volts to 100 volts. The very first bolt listed as '0' is the default un-anodized color for example.

阳极氧化钛电压色卡。 72.5 至 100 伏范围,紫色、蓝色、青色和绿色。

阳极氧化钛电压色卡。 40 至 70 伏范围,银色、金色和紫色。

阳极氧化钛电压色卡。 0 至 37.5 伏范围。

Titanium is cleaned and prepared by going through a cleaning process that ends with an ultrasonic cleaner.  After this, the parts are put into an acid bath to prepare the titanium surface for anodizing. The Acid bath etches the Titanium and allows for bright and vibrant colors to be achieved consistently.

Using precise DC voltage and Amperage* (amps), titanium parts are placed in a bath with both positive and negative currents that allow for the anodizing process to form.  This allows for a constant and uniform color to anodize the part.  For parts where multiple colors are desired, the process is achieved in much the same way, but by changing the DC voltage to reflect the different colors desired.

DC voltage determines the color of the part.  In titanium anodizing, voltage ranges from 10 to 100 volts.

If you have any questions,please contact us service01@titaner.com.